Skip to Main Content


This guide contains a variety of library resources related to orthopedics research.

Evaluation and Critical Appraisal Tools

The organizations listed below have provided critical appraisal you can use to review several types of articles.

CASP Checklists,

The CASP checklists available are:

  • Systematic Review
  • Qualitative
  • Randomised Controlled Trial
  • Case Control
  • Diagnostic
  • Cohort Study
  • Economic Evaluation
  • Clinical Prediction Rule

Critical Appraisal Tools, The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI),

The following critical appraisal tools are available for download:

  • Case Control Studies
  • Case Reports
  • Case Series
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies
  • Economic Evaluations
  • Prevalence Studies
  • Quasi-Experimental Studies (non-randomized experimental studies)
  • Randomised Controlled Trials
  • Systematic Reviews
  • Text and Opinion
  • Analytical Cross Sectional Studies
  • Qualitative Research

Critical Appraisal Tools, CEBM, Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine,

The following tools are available on the CEBM website:

  • Systematic Reviews
  • Diagnostics
  • Prognosis
  • Randomised Controlled Trials (RCT)

Levels of Evidence

The JBI (Joanna Briggs Institute) Levels of Evidence,

"These levels are intended to be used alongside the supporting document outlining their use. Using Levels of Evidence does not preclude the need for careful reading, critical appraisal and clinical reasoning when applying evidence."-JBI


Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Nonrandomized Designs, (TREND), Center for Disease Control (CDC),

"Evidence-based public health decisions are based on evaluations of intervention studies with randomized and nonrandomized designs. Transparent reporting is crucial for assessing the validity and efficacy of these intervention studies, and, it facilitates synthesis of the findings for evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the mission of the Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Nonrandomized Designs (TREND) group is to improve the reporting standards of nonrandomized evaluations of behavioral and public health interventions."-TREND

Maps and Directions