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Theoretical Models and Frameworks

Broad areas of research

While the use of theoretical frameworks is becoming increasingly common in many fields, it is especially prevalent in

  • Implementation Science
  • D/I (Dissemenation/Implementation)
  • Social Sciences

Implementation Science

"NIH defines IS as the study of methods to promote integration of research findings and evidence into healthcare policy and practice (Fogarty International Center)...  The scientific literature describes a broad landscape of theories, models, and frameworks utilized in IS which can be used to examine the array of questions pursued by IS practitioners to inform the application of new scientific discovery.

"Important to all IS frameworks is the distinction between effectiveness and efficacy, as well as the concept of scale-up. IS examines implementation of interventions within the controlled environment of research, testing effectiveness and then pilots that intervention in a local context or scales it up to population level impact testing efficacy."



prevention-related dissemination and implementation (D&I) research.

D&I research seeks to rigorously evaluate strategies for integrating evidence-based approaches into clinical and diverse community settings via public health practice, health care delivery, and health care policy. The intent of this research is to:

  • Investigate and address social, behavioral, economic, and organizational factors and policies that impede effective dissemination and implementation of evidence-based clinical, public health, and organizational findings.
  • Test new approaches to improve health programming.
  • Determine causal relationships between the strategies to implement interventions and the impacts of their use.

D&I research is also characterized by a focus on variations in dissemination and implementation processes (e.g., how evidence/interventions are integrated) and how the context (e.g., setting, population, and economic drivers) leads to heterogeneity of results.

Maps and Directions